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ОТКЛОНЕНИЯ ФОРМЫ ЦИЛИНДРИЧЕСКИХ ДЕТАЛЕЙ
Измерение внутренних размеров

Для цилиндрических элементов деталей комплексными видами отклонений формы являются:

- отклонение от цилиндричности,

- в плоскости, перпендикулярной оси, - отклонение от круглости

- в плоскости, проходящей через ось, - отклонение профиля продольного сечения.

Однако измерение формы цилиндрических деталей по комплексным показателям весьма сложно, а в некоторых случаях пока невозможно. Поэтому у цилиндрических деталей в большинстве случаях, измеряют частные виды отклонений формы : в плоскости, перпендикулярной оси, - овальность и огранку, в плоскости, проходящей через ось, - конусообразность , бочкообразность, седлообразность.

ОВАЛЬНОСТЬ - частный вид отклонения от круглости, при котором реальный профиль цилиндрической детали представляет собой овальнообразную фигуру, наибольший и наименьший диаметры которой находятся во взаимно перпендикулярных направлениях.

ОГРАНКА – частный вид отклонения от круглости, при котором реальный профиль представляет собой многогранную фигуру. Они разделяются на огранки с четным и нечетным числом граней.

КОНУСООБРАЗНОСТЬ - частный вид отклонения профиля продольного сечения, при котором образующие цилиндрической детали прямолинейны, но не параллельны.

БОЧКООБРАЗНОСТЬ - частный вид отклонения профиля продольного сечения при котором образующие цилиндрической детали непрямолинейны, а ее диаметры увеличиваются от краев детали к ее середине. СЕДЛООБРАЗНОСТЬ - частный вид отклонения профиля продольного сечения, при котором образующие цилиндрической детали непрямолинейны, а ее диаметры уменьшаются от краев детали к ее середине.

Овальность деталей возникает из-за биения шпинделя станка, погрешности закрепления детали и др.

Конусообразость деталей возникает из-за износа режущего инструмента, несовпадения геометрических осей шпинделя и пиноли задней бабки станка, отклонения от параллельности оси центров относительно направляющих станка и др.

Бочкообразность деталей обычно возникает из-за погрешности направляющих станины станка, а также при обработке длинных деталей в центрах без люнетов, когда жесткость детали меньше жесткости закрепления детали в центрах и др.

Седлообразность деталей обычно возникает из-за погрешности направ-ляющих станины станка, а также при обработке коротких деталей в центрах, когда жесткость закрепления детали в центрах меньше жесткости самой детали и др.

Для определения действительных размеров диаметра цилиндрической детали (например, отверстия) в значении частных отклонений формы измерения с помощью приборов двухточечной схемой измерения (например, нутромера) производится в соответствии со схемой приведенной на Рис.7. ß

(I - I ,II -II ,IIIIII) плоскости перпендикулярные оси . (1 – 1 , 2 – 2 ) плоскости ,проходящие через ось.

 

ОВАЛЬНОСТЬ - оценивают после измерения диаметра детали в одной из плоскостей; перпендикулярной оси (I-I или II- II или IIIIII), в двух взаимно перпендикулярных направлениях ( I - I и 2 - 2). КОНУСООБРАЗНОСТЬ, БОЧКООБРАЗНОСТЬ и СЕДЛООБРАЗНОСТЬ оценивают после проведения измерения диаметра детали в одной из плос­костей, проходящей через ось (1-1 или 2-2), но в разных плоскостях, перпендикулярных оси ( I - I и II - II и III - III).

Значения овальности, конусообразности, бочкообразности и седлообразности получают из результатов измерения диаметра цилиндрической детали по формуле:

D= (Dmax – Dmin)/2

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